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MUSHROOM PRODUCTION
AGARICUS BISPORUS
We produce the agaricus bisporus in artificial underground caves. There're about 300 000 m2 large artificial stone caves in Budapest and its surroundings. Typical Hungarian production- method: polythene bags in basements. The 1980's concluded this technical and technological improvement. Nowadays besides producing by the traditional "one floor basements" way, more factories are placed in buildings of more floors. Tents with full air-condition also come into general use, but the main technology is still the polythene bag. The multiplication material of mushrooms are ensured by two modern embryo-factories in the country. Seven other compost factories give the basic material for the production process. Our geographical position makes it possible to reach the bagged embryo compost in relatively short time. The new chapter of compost production is the production of third stage compost (interlaced). Among the methods using agaricus bisporus are the processing, the drying and the frozen-drying.

agaricus bisporus
PLEUROTUS SP.
The production of pleurotus sp. is on the 2nd-3rd place in the world. The production of basic material, embryo making, growing, in other words the whole scale needed is found in Hungary. Most of the produced pleurotus sp. reaches the consumers as fresh mushroom. There're many small and large factories producing the basic material in Hungary. More and more are producing this kind of mushroom in modern foil-tents as family business. It is very important not to use chemicals during the production. The domestic consumption is not considerable but shows some increase. 95% of the produced pleurotus sp. is for export as fresh mushroom. Typical Hungarian packaging method: cutting off the stem and placing it on the market as so called foliaged mushroom. Some of the Hungarian producers make yellow and pink pistil bodied pleurotus sp. (pleurotus dijamor) to widen their assortment. These types principally have a decorative value. The Hungarian Pleurotus sp. with its good interior contents is very much liked by the Western- European customers. It has low caloricity and lots of B vitamin. Among the mineral substance Potassium and phosphorus stand pre-eminent among the other mineral substances.

SHII-TAKE MUSHROOM - LENTINULA EDODES
This is one of the most liked and mainly produced mushroom types in the world. It's indigenous in Asia, but its production also became popular in Hungary in the last 10 years. The embryo and growing material needed for the production can both be found in Hungary. The intensive production is dominant in our country. The basic material needed is produced in an ever better quality by some factories, which are mostly functioning as family businesses. The European and domestic popularity of shii-take mushrooms are based on its excellent taste and health-giving quality. It contains large amount of the pro-vitamin of D vitamin. Its "magic" power is not only proved by observations but even clinics around the world study its beneficial results on health. By consuming it the capability of resistance increases against viral infections, the damaging cholesterol-level of blood decreases, the growing of bilestones slows down, and holds down the developing of tumours. The shii-take mushroom mostly reaches foreign customers as fresh mushroom.
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A FEW WORDS, FEW NUMBERS ON THE DOMESTIC SECTION OF MUSHROOMS (DATA OF January, 2000)

Hungary's one of the oldest mushroom-producer countries in Europe. We can talk about successful industrial production since 1921. In 1938 Hungary was the third mushroom producing country in the world, after USA and France. There was a temporarily recession after World War II. but from the end of the '80's the domestic mushroom-production was given an impulse, and made a fast revolution in the sector. According to the estimation of the Hungarian Vegetable-Fruit Product Council the domestic production of mushrooms has tripled between 1990-98, the domestic consumption has doubled and according to the data provided by Kopint-Datorg's, the amount of fresh mushroom-export has grown almost 20 times.
The production and sale of mushroom-embryo satisfies not only the domestic, but the needs of the whole Eastern-European market.
The compost production is done in five large and many small compost-factories.
Export: More than 90% of Hungarian produced mushrooms go to the EU. More than 50% of fresh mushrooms go to Austria, more than one third to Germany. Because of the greater opportunities the German market became more important in the past years. 85-90% of the mushrooms off for export is Agaricus Bisporus, 9-10% Pleurotus Sp., 1-2% shii-take and other types.
Import: The fresh mushroom import is on the minimal level, the domestic mushroom production totally satisfies the domestic needs.

EUROPEAN DEVELOPING TRENDS
Fastly developing: Poland, Spain and Turkey
Continuously developing: Belgium, The Netherlands, Hungary and Ireland
Stagnant: UK, Denmark, Germany, Italy and the Yugoslavia successor states, Russia, Switzerland
Retrogressive: Austria, France

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BIO-MUSHROOMS
Part from the "Hungarian mushroom" 10th edition. March 1999.

The Champex Ltd formed in 1990 definitely played a pioneer role in the acclimatisation of domestic non-chemical mushroom production. Step by step it formed its production technology, its clientele. It's been part of the Bioculture Society since the beginning, which is responsible for the controlling and qualification. The non-chemical mushroom-producing technology is basically the same as the traditional (chemical user) production, but we insist on the importance of hygiene and we implemented several small tricks based on years of experience. We produce in single stored basements. One of the main keys to our success (taking the perfect quality of compost and embryo) is the thorough disinfecting of the production rooms.

Cellar disinfecting: After the yielding, we scratch up the floor and sweep up all the garbage. The disinfecting is done by hot water at high pressure. With hot water we first wash the ceiling then the walls and last the floor. We singe off all of these with gas burner. Even though this method is expensive, the secure production makes it worth while. In the end we whitewash the ceiling and the walls with calcium hydrate solution before each plantation. Ingathering: The bringing in of the germinated compost is done right from the transporter vehicle. This means, the members of the ingathering team, in clean clothes and shoes, take the bags right from the platform in barrows, previously disinfected by hypo (an antiseptic). In dirt cellars we put veil-foils on the ground and spread salt around. In wintertime, when bags are gathered in, we cover them with veil-foils right away and next day when the crumpling is done we take it off. By this time we are heating and after crumpling the foils are put back on top of the bags. We take the foils off on the 6th-7th day when the temperature of the compost reaches 24-25C. The temperature is increasing in the next 4-5 days, it is measured more times daily and when it reaches the 29-30C, the foil is put back for another 2-3 days. After this period, the foil is taken off definitively.

Overlaying from bag to bag: On the 18th day the overlaying is done about 4,5-5 cm thick, from bag to bag. The packing material is bought ready mixed, ready to use. Compounds: 10% sandstone powder, 90% peat. The overlaying material in the bags is taken down to the cellars after the 5th-6th day of ingathering, so its temperature will be equal to the compost ready to be covered. After spreading the overlaying material and cleaning the place, the watering is done on the 19th day. We water once on the 19th day, put approximately 10 l of water on 4m2. We water twice on the 20th day, 2,5 l of water/m2 in the morning, and enough to make it plashy in the afternoon.

Sprouting of overlaying material: In our cultivation we either use ready to use overlaying material - embryo bought from the embryo-producers, or the obviously healthy looking, evenly interlaced compost chosen out by us. The average temperature of compost is usually 26C during the covering material sprouting. We put one handful of interlaced compost on one sack then evenly mix it to the covering material. According to our experiences the waves will be nicer, the pistil bodies will grow one by one, the bunching will greatly decrease. The advantages of the overlaying material embryo: it'll yield faster (8-10 days earlier!). So the number of yearly settled rotary could be increased. The quality of mushroom grown between is also excellent for export. It happens that at the intercoursing of the compost and the covering material that the lower covering material level (already interlaced with mycelium) becomes crusty. It's a tiny mistake of our producing technology. The cause is that the covering material is inadequately watered and not enough of water reaches the lower level. a This mistake can be corrected during the spouting of covering material by slightly crumbling this hard part. Within five days from the starting of the ventilation, we cool down the compost to 20-21C. If more ventilation is needed (because of the CO2 level) we just not only ventilate but also heat. Except for the temperature measuring, we're left to our organ of senses, like: air in the cellar, time of covering material whitening, method of drifting, number of needle-heads formed. If we decide that more fresh air is needed, but the compost-temperature is already decreasing we heat again (level heating). On the 10th day from the beginning of ventilation the 1st wave begins. The last watering is done 2-3 days before. We water continuously from the appearing of hazel sized pistil bodies, even twice a day with small amount of water.

Yielding period: At one plantation we take off 3-4 waves, 18-22 kg of mushroom/compost-quintal of the brown capped type, 92% export quality. The collecting and packaging according to the customers' needs lays a great charge on all of us. The brown capped type needs to be collected twice but many times even three times a day.

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CHAMPEX-PLUSZ LTD.

Infrastructure:

The logistic centre is at Budafok, on Dvny str. 24-44, containing five office-rooms, integument-storage, cold-storage plant, packaging place. The export goods are transported by three of our own cold-storage vans and hired hauliers to Austria and Germany. There's one cold-storage van working in Hungary.

Integument:

Champex-Plussz Ltd disposes the export-goods in cardboard boxes, trays and compartments. The frequently used packaging method:

Agaricus Bisporus:
1 kg / bulk in cardboard boxes
2 kg / bulk in cardboard boxes
2,5 kg / bulk in cardboard boxes
4 pieces of 250 g / tray, 1 kg /cardboard box
8 pieces of 500 g / tray, assembling cardboard box
8 pieces of 400 g / tray, assembling cardboard box
3 kg / bulk in compartment,

Pleurotus sp.:
1 kg /, cardboard box, in bulk, in bunch or leaves
2 kg cardboard box /, in bulk, in bunch or leaves
4 pieces / 200 g / tray, 1 kg / card, in leaves
4 pieces / 250 g / tray, in leaves

Shii-take:
1 kg / cardboard box, in bulk
2 kg / cardboard box, in bulk

Mix of types according to the needs of customers, usually 4 pieces / 300 g / tray. Basic material of tray: plastic (transparent, blue) or fibre. Compartment: We use 3-kg type of own property and 2-kg type of foreign property.

The making of small presentation is done at the premises where the bulked mushrooms are packaged by the packaging ladies according to the customers' needs into trays and those are put into card boxes, often decorated with parsley. The work is done on 5-6C.

EXPORT, DOMESTIC TRADE:

Export
The average amount of mushroom weekly exported is 35-40 t. The amount of export suddenly increases before holidays, especially before Christmas and New Year's Eve. 99% of export is fresh mushroom, the remaining 1 % is dried and frozen-dried mushroom. Certain % of mushroom export is bio-mushroom. 80% of exported fresh mushroom is Agaricus Bisporus., 15% Pleurouts sp., 4% shii-take. The remaining 1% contains rarely exported exotic- and curative mushrooms.

Domestic trade
The non-export quality and the remaining amount goes into domestic trade.

Exhibitions we participate in:
Hortus Hungaricus - Szigetszentmiklós
OMÉK - Budapest
Fruit Logistica - Berlin

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CHAMPEX PLUSZ LTD. 2002. february 28.
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